Analytical Psychotherapy attempts to
create, using a symbolic approach, a dialectical relationship between consciousness and the unconscious. The therapist encourages
and guides communication between the two systems via an imagining process using “symbolic language”, as in dreams
,fantasies, etc. Increased awareness, and thus symptomatic relief is brought about by the translation ad interpretation of
this “symbolic language”.
Behavioral is composed of cognitive (thought), motor
(reflexes), and most importantly, emotional responses. Behavior is seen as responses to stimulation, internal land external,
therefore the goal of therapy is to modify unadaptive stimulus-response (S-R) connections (automatic responses). Behavioral
therapy methods, insofar as possible, parallel those of experimental psychology. Behavior therapy includes systematic desensitization,
assertiveness training, and aversion techniques, as well as several others.
Therapy, the central hypotheses is that the growth potential of any patient will tend to be released in a relationship in
which the therapist communicates realness, caring, and a deeply sensitive, non-judgmental understanding. Thus, the therapist
practices participative and empathic listening, while allowing the client to freely vent his/her feelings.
Eclectic Psychotherapy selects what is valid or useful from all available theories, methods, and practices.
The eclectic approach rejects adherence to any one school or system, and instead utilizes what is most valid or relevant from
the whole therapeutic spectrum. It is composed of contributions from many different sources, used according to whether they
are valid, applicable, and indicated. The eclectic method thereby becomes a basic scientific approach to the problem of matching
suitable clinical methods to the needs of specific cases.
Encounter is a method of
human relating based on openness and honesty, self-awareness, self-responsibility, awareness of the body, attention to feelings,
and an emphasis on the here-and-now. As a therapeutic method, it usually occurs in a group setting. Encounter therapy focuses
on removing blocks to better functioning. Encounter is also educational and recreational in that it attempts to create conditions
leading to a more satisfying use of personal capacities.
works with immediate concreteness. Linked to existential psychotherapy, which holds that one makes and changes oneself in
present living, experiential psychotherapy and “focusing” gets into direct touch with the concrete level, where
troubles are said to actually exist. Therapists try to establish a “felt sense” within their patients in order
to create a more holistic sense of a problem or unresolved situation.
Psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy which allows clients to be the author of their own lives through self-knowledge.
It’s believed that the client's suffering stems from how the they relate to the four ultimate human concerns of death,
freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness. By understanding the underlying conflict the client is able to identify their poor
ways of dealing with the conflict and develop better ways of coping with the reality of basic existence. A mutually-open and
honest relationship is essential to the therapeutic process because it’s through this relationship that the client learns
his or her potential for feelings that have lain dormant. The existential psychotherapist tries to establish and maintain
this relationship by striving for an authentic encounter with the client in the therapeutic setting. The therapist is not
an impassive participant in the therapy process, but a fully active, open human being, modelling the process for the client.
(Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing):
EMDR is a process developed by Francine Shapiro to help clients process
through traumatic memories and events more quickly. These events can include anything from losing a job or divorce or low
self-esteem to sexual/physical/emotional abuse or abandonment as a child. The intense feelings that result from these types
of events can become locked in the nervous system and later produce symptoms of fear, anxiety, sadness, and rage long after
the event has passed. It is a profound tool for rapid and deep personal healing and change.
therapy consists of bringing discordant elements into a mutual, self-disclosing confrontation. This approach is historic,
focuses attention on immediate behavior, and calls for the personal participation of the therapist. Individuals often feel
fragmented, with at least some perceptions, feelings, behaviors, or thoughts that are puzzling, unrelated, or troubling because
they are not integrated with the whole. The task of therapy is to discover the relatedness of these alienated aspects through
Hypnotherapy is a mechanism that effectively lifts depressions, uncovers memories,
encourages abreaction's (the re-experiencing of a previous emotional event) and dreaming (in terms of affective experiencing),
enhances both motivation and a working alliance, and is also effective in activating a rapid transference reaction. Hypnotherapy
can also be defined as a deepening of a normal psychophysiological phenomenon through an intense focusing of attention upon
a specific inner or outer stimulus.
Narrative therapy with individuals, couples, and families
focuses on the stories through which people interpret and record their experiences. Based on a social constructionist view
of discourse as power, narrative retellings and subtle editing help people reject negative stories of shame, isolation, and
powerlessness and create integrated stories of growth, shared struggle, and purpose.
Counseling emphasizes the importance of getting the individual to share his problems. The individual may need to unload and
air his problems, and it is important the counselor affirms the worth of the client by listening. However, just sharing doesn't
bring resolution to the problems. It is also important to allow the individual come to a conclusion; however, it is more important
to direct the individual to the correct conclusion. Furthermore, if the individual had the answer within himself he wouldn't
really need a counselor. Furthermore, so called "common knowledge" is not always true knowledge and is, in fact, often wrong.
a system of psychology derived from Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis stresses the importance of the unconscious and dynamic forces
in psychic functioning. It is a form of therapy which uses “free association”, in which the patient is encouraged
to speak openly and freely, and relies on the analysis of transferences and resistance. Psychoanalysis strives on making the
unconscious more conscious.
Reality therapy consists of a series of theoretical principles.
It is applicable to individuals with behavioral and emotional problems, as well as those experiencing identity crisis. Focusing
on the present and behavior, the therapist guides the individual towards enabling him/her to see him/herself accurately, to
face reality, and to fulfill his/her own needs without harming him/herself or others. The crux of this theory is personal
responsibility for one’s own behavior.
RET is based on the hypothesis that an
individual’s irrational beliefs result in erroneous and damaging self-appraisals. RET attempts to change these faulty
beliefs by emphasizing cognitive restructuring, using the “ABC” theory of emotional disturbance and of personality
change. Albert Ellis states “...when a highly charged emotional consequence (C) follows a significant activating (A)
event (A) may contribute to, but only partially causes (C). RET hypothesizes that the emotional consequences (C) are more
likely caused by someone’s belief system (B) about (A), rather than (A) alone”. Rational-Emotive therapists utilize
many cognitive, affective, and behavioral methods to reorient the patient’s belief system.
Psychotherapy works with attention to the bodily experience. It makes use of breath, sensory awareness, movement, and one's
spatial sense and boundaries. Exploring how we form our experience and making use of body metaphors can play a powerful role
in this therapy approach.
Transactional analysis is an approach to interactional
psychotherapy. This style focuses on gaining the greatest possible benefit from the group environment. The therapist’s
ultimate objective is to provide the client with a level of awareness which enables him/her to make new decisions regarding
future behavior and the future course of his life.
Four major viewpoints have emerged
in psychology: psychoanalytic, the behaviorist, the humanistic, and the transpersonal. The “fourth force” or transpersonal
includes the wisdom and methods of the preceding orientations and expands psychology to include the spiritual aspects of human
The transpersonal therapist uses an eclectic approach. There is an emphasis on the counselor’s own
presence, openness, and authenticity as central to the therapeutic process; a respect for the client’s self-healing
capacities and on methods evoking those capacities; a view of dysfunction as a growth opportunity rather than “illness,”
and an emphasis on the counselor as expert facilitator rather than “physician.”
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) (Shapiro, 1989, 1995) is a complex treatment methodology
which combines various aspects of the major theoretical orientations (e.g., psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, physiological,
interactional, and client-centered) with a dual-attention stimulus to help reprocess "dysfunctionally stored experiences"
(Shapiro, 1989). It is used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan by adequately trained clinicians experienced in working
PTSD sufferers and people with related problems. EMDR therapy addresses the disturbing life experiences and trauma that contribute
to a wide range of problems, as well as in treating PTSD symptoms. EMDR consists of eight phases, numerous procedural elements,
and a set of protocols designed to address specific client complaints, such as fear and insomnia. It is somewhat misnomered,
since, in addition to eye movements, hand-taps or tones can be and are, in fact, used in its procedural technique.
Visio/Kinesthetic Dissociation (V/KD) (Bandler
& Grinder, 1979, Cameron-Bandler, 1978) involves temporarily induced dissociation from the negative feelings associated
with traumatic memory through visual review of the traumatic event(s) from a different perspective. These techniques may include:
a) directed "meta-self-visualization" (i.e., having subjects "see themselves seeing themselves" in the traumatic scene), b)
alteration of such elements as perspective, proximity, movement, etc., and c) the induced awakening in the subjects of understandings
or resources needed to promote resolution while, at the same time, emotionality is reduced. This visual review may be like
watching a movie scene from various camera positions. This procedure is later followed by directed re-association and maintenance
of the "learnings" acquired during the dissociation phase (Gallo, 1996a).
Many techniques have been used effectively
to help survivors readjust after traumatic events. I have found it useful to classify the various methods into four categories:
1. The first category is educational and includes sharing books and articles, teaching the basic concepts
of physiology to allow an appreciation of the stress response, discussing civil and criminal law with new participants in
the process, and introducing the fundamentals of holistic health. The educational process is one of mutual exchange (i.e.,
a "two-way street"). The client may have resources that he or she finds helpful and wants to share with the clinician.
2. The second grouping of techniques falls within the category of holistic health. Although the term holistic
health has its critics as well as its supporters, I offer it in the spirit of Merwin and Smith-Kurtz (1988), who noted how
physical activity, nutrition, spirituality, and humor contribute to the healing of the whole person, The clinician who promotes
these aspects of healing serves as a teacher and a coach, offering concepts that might be new to the client, and shaping abilities
that may be latent.
3. The third category includes methods that enhance social support and social integration. Family and group
therapy could be included here. Exposure to self-help and support groups in the community are other examples. But most important
is the sensitive assessment of social skills, the enhancement of these skills, the reduction of irrational fears, and the
expert timing of encouragement to risk new relationships. Traditional analytical tools and traditional social work skills
are employed to promote healing in supportive human groups.
4. finally, there are clinical techniques that are best categorized as therapy. these include working through
grief, extinguishing the fear response that accompanies traumatic imagery, judicious use of medication for target symptoms,
the telling of the trauma story, role play, hypnotherapy, and many individualized methods that are consistent with the principles
(CBT) involves working with cognitions to change emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. Exposure
therapy is one form of CBT that is unique to trauma treatment. It uses careful,
repeated, detailed imagining of the trauma (exposure) in a safe, controlled context to help the survivor face and gain control
of the fear and distress that was overwhelming during the trauma. In some cases, trauma memories or reminders can be confronted
all at once ("flooding"). For other individuals or traumas, it is preferable to work up to the most severe trauma gradually
by using relaxation techniques and by starting with less upsetting life stresses or by taking the trauma one piece at a time
Along with exposure, CBT for trauma includes:
skills for coping with anxiety (such as breathing retraining or biofeedback) and negative thoughts ("cognitive restructuring"),
for stress reactions ("stress inoculation"),
future trauma symptoms,
urges to use alcohol or drugs when trauma symptoms occur ("relapse prevention"), and
and relating effectively with people (social skills or marital therapy).
Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new treatment for traumatic memories that involves elements
of exposure therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with techniques (eye movements, hand taps, sounds) that create
an alternation of attention back and forth across the person's midline.
treatment is often an ideal therapeutic setting because trauma survivors are able to share traumatic material within
the safety, cohesion, and empathy provided by other survivors.
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